Saturday, March 28, 2020
The Importance of Water to Life on Earth a look at the unique structure and behavior of the water molecule by Steven Luscher, Student Water is the most important substance in our evolution and our daily lives. Without water, life as we know it would not have been possible. This essay will examine the water molecule in order to ascertain how it brought about Earth's thriving ecosystem and how important it is to us today. ============================== ______________________________ ============================== Each water molecule consists of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. The oxygen atom (or the apex of the water molecule) bears a slight electronegative charge while hydrogen possesses a more positive one1 (figure a). Because opposite charges attract, the water molecules are drawn together. When an oxygen atom is linked to a neighboring molecule's hydrogen atom, a bond called a hydrogen bond is formed2. In an ice crystal the hydrogen bonds govern the shape of the crystal so that the grid of molecules surrounds relatively large spaces (imagine figure b in three dimensions). In a liquid form, water has no such spaces; thus ice is less dense and will float on liquid water. If not for this, great bodies of water would freeze from the bottom up without the insulation of a top layer of ice and all life in the water would die. The water molecule is a very small one but because of its unique properties it behaves like a larger one. The bonds between water molecules are so strong that water resists changes in its state (Solid, liquid, gas); thus water has a higher melting point and a higher boiling point than another molecule of similar size. If water followed the example of other molecules its size it would have a boiling point of -75?C and a freezing point of -125?C4. This would mean that, on Earth, water would be a gas all of the time and life would not be possible. When heat is applied to solid water, some hydrogen bonds get so much kinetic energy that they break and the ice melts. Liquid water does not necessarily have all four hydrogen bonds present at all times but it must retain some of them5. For any object to penetrate water, it must be able to break the hydrogen bonds on the surface of the water. These bonds resist breaking thus forming a "skin" that allows small insects to walk on the surface of the water. Without the cohesiveness of water, those insects would not have survived. All plant life on Earth benefits from the ability of water to make a hydrogen bond with another substance of similar electronegative charge. Cellulose, the substance that makes up cell walls and paper products, is a hydrophilic substance ("water-loving")6. It interacts with water but, unlike other hydrophilic substances, it will not dissolve in it. Cellulose can form strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules7. This explains why a paper towel will "wick" water upwards when it comes in contact with it. Each water molecule will make a hydrogen bond w ith cellulose and pull another water molecule up from down below and so on. Without this feature (capillary action8), plants would find it more difficult to transport water up their stems to the leaves in order to make food through photosynthesis. Water has a very high heat capacity. Most of the heat introduced to water is used not to set water molecules in motion (giving them kinetic energy and causing their temperature to rise), but to move hydrogen atoms around between neighboring oxygen atoms9. If all of this heat was used solely to warm the water, living cells would boil in their own heat. Every action in a living cell releases some heat. If the heat was not dissipated by the water, all living things would cook themselves. In order for water to evaporate from the surface of liquid water, a certain amount of energy must be expended to break its hydrogen bonds. Because these hydrogen bonds are so strong, water requires a lot of heat to boil (100?C). When water vaporizes, it takes along all of the heat energy required to break its bonds thus having a powerful cooling effect on the
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Iraq Survey essays I went around a high school during lunch to survey a student and ask him about some questions about our situation with Iraq and the Middle East. I asked a series of fifteen questions to see what their opinions and feelings were for issues that can or will come up as this situation grows. Their opinions were similar to what I feel, but some aspects were different with my interviewee. The first question asked was concerning the US military draft. He said that he was terrified of the thought of being drafted into war. He is afraid that if the war grows large enough, that there would be a chance he could be drafted. I feel the same way, because I just turned eighteen and the possibility of being drafted is there. I am also concerned that if the war grows, that I could be drafted and sent to the Middle East. The second question asked was about homeland security. I asked if there was a fear that we could be bombed or attacked at home. He said that he was scared that we could be attacked somehow, but not by means of a bombing. He feels that there is no immediate threat to Ooltewah, Tennessee. I also feel that way, but I am afraid that Oak Ridge could be a target and that could endanger us in this area. The third question was asking if he agrees that we are the largest threat to world peace. He did not know the answer to this question, but I would have to say no that we are working towards a better, safer world. I disagree with Britain saying that we posed the largest threat to world peace. The fourth question was whether or not bin Laden was still alive and whether or not he poses a threat to the United States. He said that he thinks that he is still alive, and that he poses a larger threat to the US than Iraq. I would disagree because Iraq is more organized and a longer known enemy. We think Iraq has built weapons of mass destruction and is not afraid to use them. I have not heard of bin Laden ha ...
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
How Firms Try to Extract Consumer Surplus Using Two-Part Tariffs - Essay Example This study declares that consumer surplus may be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"The difference between the price that a consumer is willing to pay for a good and the amount actually paidÃ¢â¬ . A two-part tariff (TPT) has many interpretations, one of which is: Ã¢â¬Å"A form of pricing in which consumers are charged both an entry and a usage feeÃ¢â¬ (ibid, 317). There is more to two-part tariffs than described. It is essential to understand certain associated economic factors before getting at the rather complex topic. In this paper, I will explain in brief Consumer Surplus; Consumer Surplus and Demand; Monopoly and Pricing Strategies with Market Power. Two-part tariffs and consumer surplus are closely linked; I will explain what two-part tariff means in practical terms and show how firms try to extract consumer surplus using it. This paper highlights the public purchases goods only if there is some benefit to be had. Consumer surplus is a valuation of how much benefit individuals gain as a total on completing their purchase of the product in question. Most people have differing methods of evaluating the intrinsic value of a good. Such extraneous factors, apart from purely commercial reasons, decide for these individuals the maximum price they are willing to fork out for an item. If an individual is willing to pay Ã £ 100 for a Liverpool vs Chelsea soccer match, but manages a ticket for Ã £ 40; his consumer surplus is Ã £ 60. According to Pindyk, Rubinfeld and Mehta, Ã¢â¬Å"A demand curve is the relationship between the quantity of a good consumers are willing to buy and the price of that good.Ã¢â¬ They add, Ã¢â¬Å"It is fairly simple to calculate consumer surplus if the corresponding demand curve is known and their relationship can be examinedÃ¢â¬ . Let us do so for an individual, as advised by the a uthors.
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
'The War on Terror produces more terrorism' - Essay Example According to them, terror should be dealt with in a different way. Even though certain democrats accept the fact that applying force is necessary in certain cases, a complete solution can be achieved only by improving the ideological appeal and moral authority of the United States. More efficient democracy and smarter techniques to better relationship between nations would help reduce terror in the world. Improving cooperation among nations would eliminate misunderstandings and other issues that generates enmity between nations. According to the critics of Bush, the war on terror has contributed only in creating more terrorists. War on terror has not eliminated terror from the face of the earth. War on Terror produces more terrorism. The United States should change course completely as war on terror is expected to give birth to more terrorists. War on terror is not the right action as it cannot wipe out terror. The war on terror is found to be causing more terrorism. According to new reports the United States has played a major role in making the world more terror-filled. The world has become unsafe not just for non-Americans, but for Americans as well. The war on terror has given birth to more terrorism. Innocent people in different parts of the world are suffering because of the Ã¢â¬ËIraq effectÃ¢â¬â¢. ... Research studies have been performed to study the effect of Iraq issue on global terrorism. According to the research, the number of people lost their lives in jihadist attacks in different parts of the world has increased dramatically after the beginning of the Iraq war in 2003. The research compared the events between Sep 11, 2001 and the attack of Iraq. Excluding the Arab-Israel conflict, the count of deaths increased from 729 to 5420. Apart from conflicts in Europe, wars happened in Kashmir and Chechnya. The Centre on Law and Security (in NYU Foundation) who performed the research reported that there has been a steady rise in the number of deaths due to war and conflicts. After the attack on Iraq, terrorist activities have increased considerably. War on terror has contributed to more terrorist activities on various parts of the world. According to the reports Iraq became the reason for a fierce fundamentalist reaction that caused more terror. Iraq affairs have encouraged more ter rorist attacks that ever before. Muslim activists and terrorists became more active than ever after Iraq affairs. The number of people killed by Islamists in Iraq increased from 7 to 3,122. Afghanistan also witnessed an increase in terrorist activities as the British and US forces invaded them after the attacks of Sep 11. The number of deaths in Afghanistan was few in 2003. The number of deaths increased to 802 since then. In the conflicts at Chechen, the number of deaths increased from 234 to 497. In the Kashmir issue, Pakistan and India had their number of deaths increase from 182 to 489. Europe that had zero deaths had it increased to 297 in the terror activities. War on
Monday, January 27, 2020
Tourism Market in Mozambique Abstract Tourism is the movement of people to destinations away from their place of residence for any reason other than following an occupation, remunerated from within the country visited for a period of more than 24hours. It is one of the worlds fastest growing industries and an important source of foreign exchange and employment for many developing countries. Since crossing many of the primary needs of the population, when harnessed it can be a key instrument to poverty alleviation and socioeconomic promotion and given to its sustained growth and resilience, can also contribute to facing the main global challenges of our societies Mozambique is a country with a great potential to become a tourist destination at regional and international levels which origins from the relevant characteristics of its natural resources, cultural and historic value. But, despite the countrys tourism potential, the increase in investments and number of international tourists arrivals as well as its proximity to South Africa which is one of the worlds top tourist destinations, it still far from the expected and has little expression to the regional and international levels as a tourist destination. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a greater understanding on tourism market in Mozambique as a tourist destination by analyzing the tourism market development from 2004 to 2009. The research study was based in literature review for theory and problem discussion and the data collected from the Mozambiques Tourism Ministry reports on tourism demand from 2004 to 2009. The study shows that the high costs of tourism services for the local people and their small capacity of investment are the main factors for the slow development of domestic tourism. The tourism development in Mozambique is different when analyzing each province and type of tourists. Leisure and holidays is the main reason for visiting the country, followed by business and conference and, lastly visit relatives and friends. It also shows that its important to create guidelines to brand destinations differently and design specific tourism plans, according to specific characteristics of the tourist zones, create new marketing strategies which aim not only international tourists but also domestic tourists and specific policies for domestic tourism development, create incentive programs which stimulate and encourage the use of local architecture design and materials by local and foreign investors, create policies that stimulate and facilitate participation of the local communities in tou rism projects, employment, training food furnishings and crafts and, complementary products. 1. Introduction Tourism is the movement of people to destinations away from their place of residence for any reason other than following an occupation, remunerated from within the country visited for a period of more than 24hours (wikibooks.org). It is one of the worlds fastest growing industries and an important source of foreign exchange and employment for many developing countries. With destinations not only in industrialized countries, but also in less developed countries in East Africa, Central America and South East Asia, when harnessed, tourism can be a key instrument to poverty alleviation and socioeconomic promotion, since crossing many of the primary needs of the population. (World Tourism Organization, 1996). According to Salgado e Cravo (1999), tourism industry employs about 204.000.000 persons in all over the world, generates 655.000 millions of dollars in taxes and pays 1.7000.000 millions in salary which make it a very important activity in the world. Due to the income generated by the consumption of goods and services by tourists, the taxes levied on businesses in the tourism industry, and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism, it has become vital for many countries and a popular global leisure activity(www.sidestore.com/) and also a factor of social stability, mutual understanding among individuals and peoples and acquired an important cultural and moral dimension. Tourism can be an efficient tool to advance international peace and understanding. It is growing steadily and needs to be viewed in its social, cultural and ethical dimensions and therefore in its potential to alliance of civilizations. It shares with religions and civilizations values such as tolerance, respect of diversity, respect of nature, rediscovery of oneself and of the others. Given its sustained growth and resilience, the sector is in fact, in ideal position to contribute to facing the main global challenges of our societies (www.world tourism.org). According to the manila declaration, 1980, tourism is an essential activity for the life of nations due to its direct effects on cultural, social, educational and economic sectors of the national societies and their international relationships. Its contribution to national economy and international trade makes it a significant factor in world development and one of the main economic activities in the world through its function i n national economy, international transactions and in securing balance of payments equilibrium. Tourism that focuses on natural environments is a large and growing part of the tourism industry. While it can contribute in a positive manner to socio-economic development and environmental protection, uncontrolled tourism growth can also cause environmental degradation, destruction of fragile ecosystems, and social and cultural conflict, undermining the basis of tourism. The intangible nature of tourism industry services makes its quality control difficult but crucial and more difficult for potential costumers to evaluate and compare service offerings. In addition, instead of moving the product to costumer, the costumer must travel to the product which means spent money and time. As an industry, tourism has many components comprising to the overall travel experience. Along with transportation, it includes accommodations, food and beverage services, shops, entertainment, aesthetics and special events. To overcome this hurdle tourism, related businesses, agencies and organizations need to work together to package and promote tourism opportunities and align their efforts to assure consistency in product quality (Mahoney and Warnell, 1987). The different definitions of tourism in each country, the difference in census techniques, the great mobility of tourists and its several motivations, the heterogeneity tourism types are some reasons which make the to urism a difficult statistic object in definition and measurement (Salgado e Cravo, 1999). Manila declaration 1980 says that tourism resources (space facilities and values) are available in various countries in risk of deterioration and destruction and belong to heritage mankind. The development of tourist activities cannot be prejudicial to economic and social interests of the population in tourist areas, to the environment and to the natural resources. The national and international communities and the states are responsible for preservation and conservation of historical, cultural and religious sites at all times. In order to maximize tourisms poverty reduction potential, multiple strategies may be required that combine action at the destination, at national policy level, and internationally. Since one organization cannot operate effectively at all three levels, complementary actions by different stakeholders are required at all levels to enhance the positive outcomes of tourism. The destination level relies primarily on initiatives by private companies, NGOs, and the communities themselves. Nationally the governments can reduce obstacles to informal sector participation. Internationally, the promotion of responsible consumer and business behavior and the establishment of enforceable international industry codes of conduct can also contribute towards poverty reduction potential of tourism (Ashley, Boyd and Goodwin, 2000, p6). 1.1. Significance of the research Mozambique is a country with a great potential to become a tourist destination at regional and international levels which origins from the relevant characteristics of its natural resources, cultural and historic value. Its distinct local style consists of a blend of African, Arab and Portuguese influences and provides a contrast to the other southern African countries, offering an unique historical and cultural heritage, tropical beaches, coral reefs, spectacular landscapes, intriguingly rich architecture and small desolated islands close to the coast, Mozambique is one of the most enticing tourist destinations in Southern Africa. In 2001, the country received about 400 thousands tourists, about 80% of the arrivals in Tanzania which is a country with the same natural characteristics and product lines but without the same proximity and access routes to south africa (one of the worlds top tourist destination). In the same period, South Africa received 6 million of tourists and according to WTO, is expecting to receive 30 million tourists in 2020.The tourism contribution to the Gross Domestic Product in Mozambique was also relactively low (1,2% in 2001). In 2002, the country received 900 thousands tourists mostly from the neihgboring countries. In south Africa, the sector contributes with about 8% to the national economy, in Sub-Saharian Africa with about 6.5% of the GDP and in the world with 10.2% of the GDP. According to tourism in Mozambique.wikipedia.The free encyclopedia, by the end of 1990s tourism was the best growing sector of Mozambiques economy and in 2005 the country registered the fastest growth rate in the world. Despite the countrys tourist potential, the obvious increase in investments and number of international tourists arrivals as well as its proximity to South Africa, it stills far from the expected and has little expression to the regional and international levels as a tourist destination, so, this research intends to analyze the tourism market development in Mozambique as a tourist destination from 2003 to 2008 and identify how to attract new tourist markets. 1.3. Problem discussion Tourism is an attractive tool for economic development, especially in the developing world and has assisted many developing countries to move away from a dependency on agriculture and manufacturing (Tooman, 1997 cited by Kabia, 2005). Chosen for its ability to bring in needed foreign exchange earnings, income and employment; it has become a popular addition to economic development policies in many African, Asian, South and Central American countries. Although it seems to be adding substantially to the economic growth of many of these regions, many developing countries are not reaping to full benefits from tourism. More than two thirds of the revenue from international tourism never reaches the local economy because of high foreigner exchange leakage. Understanding the many ways that tourism profits can leak out of an economy and, devising strategies to minimize could make tourism a more effective economic development agent (kabia, 2005). Worldwide, international tourist arrivals in 1999 are estimated at approximately 700 million, resulting in over $500 billion in tourist receipts and tourism generates nearly 250 million jobs worldwide (kabia, 2005).the increasing fascination potential economic benefits for destination areas(kabia, 2005).In the past two decades increased attention to the negative social, cultural and environmental impacts of tourism has also emerged, calling for more careful planning and management of tourism development (WTO, 1996). According to (Harrison Husbands, 1996 cited by kabia, 2005) achieving sustainable tourism (the one that maintains economic benefits and limits associated negative impacts), lie in minimizing negative impacts by strategies such as environmental and social impact analysis, community control and segmenting markets. The potential economic benefits of tourism are a major attraction for developing countries due to three pro-tourism arguments: the trend in demand for international travel is projected to continue at astonishing rates due to the economic stability and travel preferences of people in the developed regions such as Europe, Asia and North America ; the income elasticity of demand for tourism means that the household incomes of people in the developed world increase, more disposable income will be directed towards travel and, developing countries are in need of foreign exchange earnings to support their economic development initiatives and to satisfy the demands of their residents (kabia, 2005). Today traveling for pleasure (leisure, recreation holidays and visiting friends and relatives) is the most common form of traveling. People have a number of different motivations for traveling. Some people travel for sun, sand and sea while others, are most interested in cultural and sporting activities associated with the travel. When surveyed people tend to list the following reasons for travel (Walker, 2004): To experience new and different surroundings To experience different cultures To rest and relax To visit friends and family To view or participate in sporting recreational activities According to the same author, longer life spans (people live longer and have better health), flexible working hours, early retirement, greater ease of travel, tendency to take shorter but more frequent trips and increase on standard of living are factors contributing to an increase on number of traveling in the coming years. The future travel patterns are vary hard to predict but there are number of trends and factors that will definitely impact on how, where, when and why we are going to travel. Visitors often come from particular socioeconomic layer of the population of industrialized countries and capital surplus, which requires relatively sophisticated market research to identify and analyze and profiles the preferences of these visitors. Although in these countries a prosperous minority exists that is capable of undertaking domestic tourism, many inhabitants lack the income and wherewithal to travel, so, the research must not focus only on measurement of domestic tourism but on ways and means to improve access of underprivileged layers of the population to holidays and travel, and on devising economical, but adequate means of supply (accommodation and transportation) to achieve this aim (kabia, 2005) As we know, when harnessed, tourism can be a key instrument to poverty alleviation and socioeconomic promotion, since crossing many of the primary needs of the population. 1.4. Research approach According to Denscombe, 1998, the research approaches can be divided in two: qualitative and quantitative. A quantitative study is associated with numbers as the unit of analysis, analysis, large scale studies, a specific focus, researcher detachment and a predetermined research design while a qualitative study is associated with words as the unit of analysis, description, small scale studies, holistic perspective, researcher involvement and an emergent research design. This thesis is a research quantitative since it uses numbers as unit of analysis of the tourism market as a tourist destination in Mozambique. According to Fretchling (2001), the careful forecaster will inquire into how the data to be used was collected and processed to understand what measurement anomalies may be present and how much of the variation through time is due to sampling error. My study was based in already existing data records, which made it difficult to predict and prevent eventual mistakes occurred dur ing the data collection process, but some studies indicate that is difficult to determine the economic performance of the tourism sector in Mozambique due to difficulties in collecting data and statistical indicators of some revenue like, average rates of occupancy and international flows in the country. 1.5. Outline of the thesis The presented thesis is basically composed by four parts: Introduction this part introduces the area of study, presents the significance of the research, problem discussion, research approach, outline of the thesis and finally the purpose of the thesis. Methodology this part gives a brief and clear description of the methods used when conducting the study. Mozambiques tourism sector overview this part presents a general description on tourism in Mozambique Findings, conclusions and recommendations the final part, reaches and describes the research purpose by analyzing, commenting and suggesting on how to improve the performance of the tourism sector in Mozambique. 2. Research purpose The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a greater understanding of tourism market in Mozambique as a tourist destination by analyzing the tourism market development from 2004 to 2009, through: characterizing the tourism market development in Mozambique from 2004 to 2008; Identifying some of the main constraints and contributing factors to tourism development in Mozambique. Identifying how to attract new tourism markets 3. Methodology 3.1. Literature review To make the study clear and well planned, first was used the method of library research which means that the information was taken from different sources related to tourism industry. Denscombe (1998, p. 58) cited by tese2, says that a research should always start with a literature review that: shows that the researcher is aware of the available existing work already undertaken in the area identifies what the researcher takes to be the key issues, the crucial questions and the obvious gaps in the current state of knowledge provide signposts for the reader about where the research is coming from it allows the reader to see which theories and principles have been influential in shaping the approach adopted in the proposed research In this study, databases Elsevier Direct Science was used in order to find full text studies from academic journals that are related the area of research using search words such as: Tourism, Ecotourism, Tourism analysis, Destination, Destination Marketing, Destination Management, Tourism in developing countries, Tourism market in Mozambique. Public libraries, websites like, jstor.org, WTO.org, MINTUR.org, as well as textbooks and doctoral thesis were also used to find more theory, gain more insight and latest information about the research area. The research was based on data records on tourism market demand in Mozambique from 2004 to 2009 received from the Ministry of tourism, planning and cooperation department. 3.3. Research strategy The research strategy consists of a quantitative method for collecting and analyzing data. Tourism demand data can be compiled from administrative reports such as counts of tickets sold, passenger carried for transportation. Theme parks, museums and other attractions also produce administrative records. Commercial lodging places in most countries are required to keep careful records of the number of guests and length of stay. Sample surveys and direct observation are also techniques used to estimate tourism demand data. (Fretchling, 2001). These are also the main methods used in Mozambique to estimate the tourist demand. Due to lack of resources in terms of time and money I had to limit myself to the Mozambiques Tourism Ministry reports on tourism demand. The information collected was related to Mozambiques tourism market from 2004 to 2008. Information retrieval, libraries and other related information centers were also consulted and, relying on the data collected that enabled to organize and guide this study and its analysis, was written this research report. 4. Tourism in Mozambique 4.1. Mozambiques tourism sector overview 4.1.1. General information about Mozambique Mozambique is located on the southeast coast of Africa, to the east is the Indian Ocean; to the north, Tanzania, Malawi and Zambia; to the west, Zimbabwe and South Africa and to the south Swaziland and South Africa. The country has a total area of 799380 kmÃ ² with approximately 20 millions of inhabitants of a diverse cultural environment with several ethnic groups and religions (tourism guide)Ã ¼Ã âit is ranked 33rd country in the world according to its size. It is formed by 11 provinces and its capital is Maputo. Portuguese is the official language but the linguistic diversity is one of its main cultural characteristics. Each ethnical group has its own language and for the majority of the population, mainly in rural areas, the national idioms are the mother tongue and the one most used on a daily basis (tourism guide). Most educated people speak English which is used in schools and business as second or third language. Altogether this accounts to approximately 43 different languages. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_Mozambique). There are many religions in Mozambique but the 1997 census showed, 23.8% Catholics, 17.8% Muslims, 17.5% Zionist Christians, 17.8% other, 23.1% none (www.indexmundi.com/mozambique/religions.htm). 4.1.2. Tourism in Mozambique Mozambique is a country of contrasts and extreme beauty, with attractions ranging from crystalline beaches, nature reserves and parks, plenty of opportunities for fine adventure and business travel and a huge historic and cultural value which attract tourists from all over the world interested in adventure, leisure, business, ecotourism, religious tourism and others(MINTUR, 1999). The country is now investing on recovering of its wildlife, with a great variety of nature reserves, and its likewise devoting resources to tourism with a high quality hunting safaris, but at the same time working to develop greater awareness of the natural environment. In the towns and cities, a great diversity of history and culture is melded into the architecture and the pulse of daily history life can be felt from the bustle of the markets to the striking handicrafts, from the museums to the bars and restaurants (tourist guide, 2007). Due to its nature diversity composed by tropical and crystalline beaches, with hot water creating opportunities to practice fishing and aquatic sports, sub aquatic richness composed by varieties of species, animals, coral reefs and rich in archaeological finds with great ecological value is known as the Indian pearl (MINTUR, 1999) and considered one of the worlds new sanctuaries (tourist guide, 2007). 4.1.3. Tourism development in Mozambique Tourism has become regulated and supported by the colonial government in the second half of the 50ths with the creation of the first information and tourism centers and establishment of the first tourist zones. In this period the tourism was basically characterized by safari tourism with international character (around 50% of tourists were Americans) leading to regeneration of the campsite service to the detriment of the hotels. After the independence (in 1975) there was a great depression in national tourism industry as result of the difficult relationship with the two countries in the region which formed the main market (south Africa and Zimbabwe), lack of technician to plan and manage the tourism sector, the armed conflict that destroyed the tourist infrastructure as well as the flora and wildlife, and blocked access to communication and transportation. The tourism industry was basically constituted by international cooperation missions. The end of the civil war (in 1992) and the development of the structural adjustment program defined a restoration program for tourism sector considering tourism as a sector of maximization of foreign currency entry and job generation, to enhance regional development and distribute its benefits to all areas of the country as well as to project a prestigious image of Mozambique abroad and promote greater involvement of national enterprises in tourism undertakings. Due to the speed and decentralization in evaluation and approval of projects, improvement of security in business environment, resulting from the new program implementation, there was a rapid growth of investment in the sector, goods and services as well as travel agencies and promotion of national and domestic tourism campaigns. According to (MINTUR, 1999), the ministry of tourism is the central organ of the state which is responsible, in accordance with the principles, aims and tasks defined by the government, for the application of the policy for the tourism in the public, private and community domains. The tourism law, is the instrument used, was established bearing that Mozambique has tourism resources that place it in a favorable and competitive position in the regional and international tourism market, and considering that tourism needs to be developed in a sound, sustainable way in accordance with its cross cutting nature, recognizing tourisms eminently dynamic character in promoting jobs and generating foreign currency, and the need to bring existing legislation up to date, it is incumbent upon the state to update relevant legal instruments (MINTUR,1999). 4.1.4. Tourist zones Mozambique is very rich in natural resources (land, sea, fauna and flora). The type of land and climate has created three different varieties of vegetation, dense forestland in the high parts of north and centre of the country, woodland and savannah in the south and mangrove along the coastline. In terms of wildlife a variety of species can be found in these ecosystems as well as beautiful landscapes and views along the coast and in the higher mountainous areas (tourism guide, 1999). The tourist zones in Mozambique are subdivided into three (north, center and south) with different geophysics characteristics, socio economic development and tourist profiles (Salgado e Cravo, 1999). a) North (rich in cultural resources) With a unique identity in Southern Africa, the region is composed by Cabo Delgado, Nampula, Niassa and ZambÃ ©zia provinces. (3) Due to its great touristy potential and tourism products which need to be exploited is called the Jewel of Tourism (2) Tourism is mainly concentrated in Nampula, Nacala and Pemba cities. (2) Is an exclusive destination for international and regional markets, with beaches and tropical islands, scuba diving and deep-sea fishing activities, with a strong cultural influence and Strong market opportunities for eco and hunting tourism (3) There is a growing interest by investors in new project infrastructure such as hotels, hostels, campsites and others. (3) The marine life and the beauty of probably one of the worlds most beautiful archipelagos, the Quirimbas archipelagos, the forest intact and extensive part of the Niassa Reserve and the unique biodiversity of Lake Niassa.(2) In this region, outstands, ilha de moÃ §ambique (mankind heritage by UNESCO), Ibo island (with a wonderful marine life), Quirimbas archipelago,Niassa reserve and Niassa lake (tourism guide, 1999) a) Mozambique island b) Mozambique island c) Niassa Lake d) Ibo island b) Center (rich in natural resources) Composed by Sofala, Manica and Tete provinces, this region is based on nature and wildlife, characterized by business facilities, beaches, exotic animals (is what really attracts tourists) around conservation and preservation of wild species areas. Its an exclusive destination for adventure tourism and ecotourism for specialized markets (Hiking, appreciation of birds, hunting, fishing, ecotourism) and important to the business market and sun, sand and sea tourism for domestic and regional markets (3) The city of Beira is the countrys second city and an important regional economic center. Its port plays an important role in linking Mozambique with Zimbabwe and other neighboring countries located in the center and the citys tourism is based on commerce and trade.(2) In this region highlights are, Gorongoza national park (was one of the most famous in southern Africa), Chimanimani and Marromeu reserves and, electrical barriers of Cahora Bassa and Chicamba Real (tourism guide, 1999). a) Gorongoza national park b) Gorongoza national park c) Electrical barrier of Cahora Bassa d) Electrical barrier of Chicamba Real c) South (rich in coastal and marine resources) Composed by Maputo, Maputo City, Gaza e Inhambane provinces,is a perfect national and regional destination for sun, sand and sea and water sports holidays (3). This region is benefiting from considerably higher levels of development and has the best infrastructure of the whole country and concentrates almost 50% of the national tourism (over 50% of the total of registered establishments and 65% of the total beds). With a vast coastline with beaches and tropical waters and marine resources of exceptional quality (3), and beautiful landscapes, the region is characterized by business and leisure tourism. Maputo concentrates business tourism, while leisure tourism basically composed by diving, eco-tourism and culture (3) is progressing satisfactorily in various parts of Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane provinces. (2) The tourist infrastructures in this region are accessible and of the most varied ranges.The beaches of Vilanculos, bazaruto,Bilene, Xai Xai, Macaneta are essential for a good family tourism, Ponta do Ouro and Ponta Malongane are the major poles of attraction for watersports tourism practitioners and enthusiasts.(2) The fact that this part of the Mozambican tourist attractions have derived from the ecological environment, the occurrence of natural phenomena, reinforces the interest of tourists to know and enjoy the privilege of coming in contact with such beautiful landscapes.(3) The highlights are Limpopo National park, Bazaruto archipelago, and special elephants reserve (Tourism guide, 1999). a) Elephants reserve b) Limpopo national park c) Aechipelago of Bazaruto d) Aechipelago of Bazaruto 5. Literature review 5.1. Destination 5.1.1. Definition Destinations have emerged as the fundamental unit of analysis in tourism (WTO, 2002) and form pillar in any modeling of the tourism system as most tourism activities take place at the destination (Pike, 2005). A tourist destination is defined as a physical space where visitors spend at least one overnight (WTO) or as the focus of facilities and services designed to meet the needs of tourists (Cooper et al, 1998). It includes tourism products such as support services and attractions, and tourism resources within one days return travel. It has physical and administrative boundaries defining its management, and images and perceptions defining its market competitiveness (WTO). A tourist destination describes a geographical space which provides all parts of a destinations supply (attractions, amenities and access) to satisfy the needs of specific tourism segments during their vacation or it includes elements of the supply chain: accommodation and gastronomy, entertainment and leisure time amenities, transportation, information. While these services are delivered by different suppliers, they are offered to their consumers as one unit. The destinations dimension or size is perceived differently by the visitors depending on: its distance to the visitors place of origin, its popularity and image as well as the visitors travel experience (KloiberÃ ¼Ã â2008). According to Buhalis (2000), it can be characterized as the six frameworks: Attractions (natural, man made, artificial, purpose built, heritage, special events) Accessibility ( entire transportation system comprising of routes, terminals and vehicles) Amenities (accommodation and cat
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Williams also reinforces his implied themes with many motifs and symbols, such as music, drunkenness, and bathing. Towards the end of scene three, Blanche turns on the radio and Ã¢â¬Å"waltzes to the music with romantic gestures [while Mitch imitates] like a dancing bearÃ¢â¬ (57). Because Blanche is accustomed to her insanity, which is represented by the Varsouviana Polka, she is able to move along with the music fine while Mitch, who is accustomed to reality (and has primitive traits), is unable to gracefully match BlancheÃ¢â¬â¢s movements and grace. Not only does the Polka music represent BlancheÃ¢â¬â¢s descent into insanity, but also tends to appear at moments when she is in a state of panic. Secondly, drunkenness is a major symbol throughout the play. Stanley states that Ã¢â¬Å"[one thing that] belongs on a poker table [is] whiskeyÃ¢â¬ while Blanche lies and says Ã¢â¬Å"[she isnÃ¢â¬â¢t] accustomed to having more than one drinkÃ¢â¬ (54). Stanley and the men seem to drink for social reasons, and they sometimes end up becoming violent or barbaric. Blanche, however, seems to drink in an almost anti-social manner while keeping it a secret, and the results of her drunkenness usually end up causing her to deceive herself. Although the author never states the illness that Blanche is eventually diagnosed with, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a guide used by modern day psychologists to classify types of mental disorders, would classify her as a paranoid schizophrenic. In addition to music and drunkenness, bathing also is an important symbol that is implanted into the play, which is evident when Stanley becomes violent and his friends bath him with Ã¢â¬Å"the water . . on full tilt [and later] comes out of the bathroom [and] breaks into sobsÃ¢â¬ (59). Because he was violent (and drunk), StanleyÃ¢â¬â¢s friends cleanse him of his bad actions with water. He then comes out of the bathroom afterwards and feels regretful, calling out to his love and wanting to be forgiven. Throughout the history of the world and its culture, men and women have had gender-based roles in society which usually portrays men as being primitive and lacking emotion while portraying women as being more delicate and fragile. Such depictions can be seen in a work of Tennessee Williams, A Streetcar Named Desire, which is based on a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s false beliefs that slowly lead her into a descent of insanity. Throughout scene three, many subtle cues embedded into TennesseeÃ¢â¬â¢s work, which include lighting, stage directions, colors and more are used to help portray the traits of certain characters and especially Blanche Du BoisÃ¢â¬â¢ inability to overcome reality. In conclusion, Tennessee Williams uses many motifs and symbols in his works of literature, with A Streetcar Named Desire being a very prime example. You can read alsoÃ Similarities and Conflicts in Ã¢â¬ a Streetcar Named DesireÃ¢â¬ Primitiveness and fantasyÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to overcome reality are represented in many things including lighting, music, colors, drinking, and even bathing. Tennessee Williams uses setting, lighting, and costumes to reinforce theme by describing the setting and events in the rawest and most articulate manner, which gives readers a detailed and symbolic image of the content in scene three including the primitiveness of men and fantasyÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to overcome reality. When the author first describes the setting, he states that the men are Ã¢â¬Å"at the peak of their physical manhood, as coarse and direct and powerful as the primary colorsÃ¢â¬ (45). Because the men are very up-front and Ã¢â¬Å"coarse,Ã¢â¬ Tennessee reinforces the theme of the primitive and the primal by describing the physique and status of the men at the poker table. He also compares them to the primary colors, which helps back up the description of their rawness and vigor. Secondly, Tennessee Williams uses lighting to help give the readers more insight on the novel. For example, when Mitch and Blanche are together in the room, she tells him to Ã¢â¬Å"put [the new lamp shade she just bought] over [a] light bulbÃ¢â¬ (55). Although Blanche lets many people see her in daylight, she only allows Mitch to see her in dimly-lit areas and even lies to him about many things including her age because she likes him and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want him to discover her slowly fading beauty. The theme being inferred here, fantasyÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to overcome reality, is also represented by BlancheÃ¢â¬â¢s past haunting her due to the death of her husband, the loss of her Old Southern family estate, and her dismissal from work due to an improper affair with a student. Lastly, the themes of both the primitive/primal and Blanches inability to overcome reality are represented in the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of costume assignment, which is evident when Blanche is dressing and Ã¢â¬Å"stands in her pink silk brassiere and white skirt in the light through the portieresÃ¢â¬ (51). Unlike the men in the novel, who are portrayed in colors that are raw and primary, the absence of primitiveness is shown in the many descriptions of BlancheÃ¢â¬â¢s pastel-colored clothing. The silhouette that also appears as Blanche stands in the light of the portieres also helps create the foundation of BlancheÃ¢â¬â¢s fantasy world (the darkness of the silhouette) that is enclosed and trapped by reality (the light around her). A Streetcar Named Desire A Streetcar Named Desire is one of the most famous and noted plays in American history. The play was written by Tennessee Williams and won him the 1948 Pulitzer Prize for Drama (Spoto, 1997).The main characters of the story, Blanche DuBois, Stanley Kowalski and Stella Kowalski represent the social and personal conflicts of post-war American society. One of the most interesting elements in the play that contributed to the success of the play is the manner by which each of the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s perspectives and illusions are used to bring insight to the reality.Naturalism was depicted in the play by incorporating existing social conditions, language and through references to events, personalities and issues. This is evident in the backgrounds and demeanors of characters and in the manner of their interactions. Another factor that represents naturalist elements to the play is the use of developing sciences and issues into the story such as StellaÃ¢â¬â¢s nervous condition, StanleyÃ¢â ¬â¢s involvement with the growing violence and vice of the city andÃ Blanche's rape and nervous breakdown.Another use of naturalism in the play is seen in the lack of dramatic role reversals among the characters and instead the characters are portrayed as individuals simply with lives that can go beyond their ability to control (Williams & Miller, 2004).Another factor that has contributed to the appeal of the play was because of the ease of reference with audience. The main reason for this is the realism of the characters. BlancheÃ¢â¬â¢s situation of having to leave the South was a common to the era as economics became an issue in the region. Stella represented common issues regarding rights and independence being raised for women.Stanley represented the stiff challenges of the city which requires aggressiveness and dominance. Though the characters are representations of social segments, Williams gave them their individual idiosyncrasies and vulnerabilities which made persons to the audience.ReferencesSpoto, Donald (1997). The Kindness of Strangers: The Life of Tennessee Williams. Chicago: Da Capo PublishingWilliams, Tennessee and Miller, Arthur (2004). A Streetcar Named Desire. New York: New Directions Publishing Corporation.Ã
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Explain which of the following two approaches to enhance food safety would be more effective in the long run- a stronger enforcement program by the local health department, or a mandatory food safety training requirement for all restaurant employees. Describe worker behaviors that may promote or compromise food safety. Provide two examples. Describe the top one recommendation you would give to the public to prevent being bit by mosquitoes that may transmit West Nile Virus. Justify your choice. Describe the top one recommendation you would give to the community to control the mosquito population in the community. It is my recommendation to implement a mandatory food safety training requirement for all restaurant employees. In order for this process to be effective education is very important. If restaurant employees are not educated on proper food handling, preparation, cleaning procedures in the kitchen they are destined to fail any type of standards and inspections. Because of the lack of funding and other resources Public Health departments are limited therefore establishments may only get inspected one to six times per year. According to Allison Knezevich, a reporter from the Charleston Gazette in West Virginia, Ã¢â¬Å"A critical violation is an infraction that is capable of spreading foodborne illness such as chicken salad that are not kept cold enough, on ice or refrigerated or employees who donÃ¢â¬â¢t practice adequate hand hygiene. Ã¢â¬ She also stated, Ã¢â¬Å"Under the current rules, an establishment can have five uncorrectable critical violations before it is shut down. Ã¢â¬ (Knezevich 2008). The behaviors of workers can promote or compromise food safety. Questions like why donÃ¢â¬â¢t food handlers wash their hands? Why isnÃ¢â¬â¢t that food stored at the required temperatures? When asked workers usually say they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize the possible dangers associated with food safety or lack thereof. As a food service manager you have to influence the workers behaviors to achieve an acceptable change and implement consequences if changes are not met, increase awareness of a need for change, promote awareness and employ reminder systems, provide training and guidance in performing the action, use verbal reinforcement, and demonstrate desired behaviors. Jenkins-McLean, 2004) How does this get accomplished? Demonstrate proper hand washing, use examples of restaurant foodborne outbreaks, involve the staff in mock inspections, and possibly have weekly meetings to re-emphasize key food protection points. When this occurs you will have a restaurant staff that not only exhibits proper worker behavior, but also understands why food safety is an extremely important issue and food Preparation is even more complex than ever. Ultimately mandating educational programs and professional training for restaurant employees is the best way to limit the spread of foodborne illness and promote healthy food safety practices. By doing this you will reduce the number of reportable public health illnesses that occur as a result of improper food preparation or handling. Being one of the most abundant insects in the world mosquitos have in some way made life miserable of every person on the planet be it a skin irritation caused from the saliva from the mosquito. A more serious consequence of some types of mosquito bites is the transmission of serious diseases such as dengue fever, malaria, different forms of encephalitis to include Ã¢â¬Å"West Nile Virus which has affected over 30,000 people in the U. S. since 1999Ã¢â¬ (EPA 2012). There are about 200 different species of mosquitos that live in the United States, and they all live in specific habitats, exhibit behaviors unique to its species and prey on different types of animals but all of these different species of mosquitoes have one thing in common they all have a four-stage life cycle. Humans arenÃ¢â¬â¢t the only creatures who can be infected by mosquitos other mammals such as dogs and horses can be afflicted with such diseases as dog heart worms, West Nile Virus and eastern equine encephalitis in horses. All mosquitos lay their eggs in standing water but if the water has predators such as fish and dragonfly nymphs in it they will not and if they do the eggs will be eaten. Other sites in which other species lay their eggs include buckets, old tires, tree holes, and potted plant trays. One of the most dangerous and annoying species such as the Asian tiger come from these types of sites. As a Healthcare Administrator of a local health clinic faced with the problem of mosquitos in your community I would put together a small task force of educators and pest control works to hold a class in a large enough building to accommodate the community members and the class would be on how to protect yourself from biting mosquitos, and the risk of being infected with by deadly disease. The community members will be taught how to apply insect repellent to all exposed skin, how to choose the right type of repellent so that you and your family can enjoy the outside more, what to look for in the ingredients used. They will also be taught that it is very important not to get the repellent into the eyes, mouth, and open sores on the skin because it would burn. Ã¢â¬Å"If you are going to be outside during the hours of dusk and dawn it is wise to spray on a repellent containing permethrin because most mosquitoes can and will bite through thin clothingÃ¢â¬ (EPA 2012). If the weather permits another method of ensuring you are not bitten is to wear long sleeve shirts and long pants which act as another barrier of protection. To protect infants and the young place some type of netting over the carriers. When you are in the home make sure that any broken windows are replaced and if you like to have the windows open install door and window screens. The recommendations I would give to the community as a whole is to try to reduce the number of habitats mosquitos use to lay their eggs in by dumping all sources of standing water. If you have a pool make sure itÃ¢â¬â¢s chlorinated on a regular basis, empty birdbaths at least twice a week, about one a month clean and or unclog rain gutters, if you see rubbish laying around in your community call the city trash collection company to come and clean it up because that would be an optimal place for any mosquito to lay its eggs. Conclusion Ultimately the prevention and control of WNV is most effectively accomplished through rigorous vector management programs at the least the programs should include surveillance of humans and the animals in the area that could be infected with the virus and when the time comes implementation of the appropriate control measures.